Polish Film Festival is one of the oldest film events in Europe promoting Polish cinematography on such a wide scale. Founded in 1974, until 1986, PFF was organised in Gdansk, then Gdynia became its venue with the Danuta Baduszkowa Musical Theatre hosting the Festival Centre.
Each year, the PFF audience has an opportunity, often as the first one in Poland, to see the most recent Polish productions. The most interesting Polish films, premieres, debuts and international film festivals’ prizewinners compete for the Golden Lions and Silver Lions, as well as a number of individual awards.
Currently, the Festival programme comprises three competition sections – Main Competition, Short Film Competition and Microbudget Film Competition – as well as numerous out-of-competition sections, and accompanying events. The regular sections of the Festival include, i.e., “Pure Classics” – a review of digitally restored Polish films, “Pre-War Cinema Treasures”, “Polonica” – screenings of foreign productions made with the participation of Polish filmmakers, the exceptionally popular, abounding in educational programmes “Gdynia for Children” section, and the thematic sections organised with the participation of the Festival partners. Each year, the Platinum Lions award for lifetime achievement is also granted at the Festival.
The Festival allows for an open confrontation of the film work with the audience, film life observers and participants, as well as journalists. The event is attended by approximately 2,000 professionals each year. Gdynia hosts Polish and international guests: filmmakers, actors, producers, festival programmers. It is the most important Polish film event, thus, a significant part of the accompanying events, such as fora, conferences, presentations or workshops, are addressed to this group of participants. Year after year, due to the development of infrastructure and the growing popularity of the event, the number of attendants increases. In 2018, approx. 75,000 viewers participated in screenings, meetings and other events. In addition, the educational role of the Festival is growing in significance. It is increasingly popular among the students and pupils interested in extending their knowledge and actively participating in culture.
The Polish Film Festival emerged in the 1970s at the initiative of the Gdansk community of the “Żak” Film Discussion Club and the Polish Filmmakers Association. Currently, the Pomeranian Film Foundation in Gdynia is its producer, and its organisers are the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, the Polish Film Institute, the City of Gdynia, the Local Government of the Pomeranian Province, the Polish Filmmakers Association. Each year, several dozen institutions, sponsors and media patrons engage in the event’s organisation. The relation of the Festival and Gdynia is of particular significance – PFF is one of the most important events in the life of the city, which has an essential impact on its development and image.
Polish Film Festival is the most important Polish film event, holding the status of the national film festival, which clearly contributes to the popularisation of film culture, the promotion of Polish film achievements, and the establishment of the position and receptionof Polish cinema.
40 years of emotions.
The History of Polish Film Festival
Polish Film Festival is the most important film event in the country. It took forty years to establish the image of a feast of the Polish cinema. Despite problems with the authorities in the times of the Polish People’s Republic, the change of venue in the 80s, the separation from the roots, numerous artistic, political, financial and social crises, the atmosphere of the Festival has remained unchanged.
The beginnings. A fight over the national festival
The origins of the Polish Film Festival were based on the conviction of a particular significance of cinematography for the culture and social life in Poland. The Polish cinematography was seen as an art with a mission. The film gave the opportunity of expressing that which was prohibited by the Communist censorship. The role of the Polish Filmmakers Association, established in 1966, which in those times first and foremost safeguarded the identity of the Polish cinema, must not be forgotten either. The Association became an indispensable tool for fighting against the censorship and putting films away “to the shelves”. In the beginning of the 70s, in a well organised, ambitious environment of filmmakers, there was a growing need for the creation of an event, a Polish cinema feast, which would also perform a unifying function. The PFA Chairman, Jerzy Kawalerowicz, managed to convince the authorities to this idea and to obtain the then indispensable approval. For various reasons, the Tricity was selected as the venue for the organisation of the Festival. The Filmmakers Association’s initiative coincided with the efforts of Lucjan Bokiniec, the former co-founder of the Gdansk “Żak” – who, together with his team, wanted to organise a professional festival of Polish films in the Tricity. Bokiniec became the first Artistic Director of the event. “The diversity of the Tricity, its tourist attractiveness, the availability of the infrastructure and active cultural and academic circles created exquisite foundations for a national film festival,” Anna Wróblewska writes in the book 40 years of the Gdańsk Gdynia Film Festival. The main award in the competition, as decided, that is, the Gdansk Lions, corresponded with the image of the city.
The first edition of the Polish Film Festival was held in 1974. In the beginning, Gdansk was the venue of the event, and it was there that the Official Opening Ceremony (during which Jerzy Hoffman’s Deluge was screened) and Awards Ceremony were held. The remaining screenings were held in Sopot, in Polona and Bałtyk cinemas. Many participants remember the unique, spontaneous character of the first edition, during which an academic spirit was strongly recognisable, until this very day.
The Festival has had great potential from the very beginning. The aforementioned Deluge by Jerzy Hoffman, the Festival Gdansk Lions Grand Prix winner, was nominated for the Oscar. In 1975, the Golden Lions were awarded ex aequo to Nights and Days by Jerzy Antczak and The Promised Land by Andrzej Wajda.
A Festival of moral anxiety
The Festival united the environment. In the second half of the 70s, a formation whose films were called as “the cinema of moral anxiety” grew in popularity. In 1977, the historic Polish Filmmakers Association Forum took place. PFA Fora were a unique opportunity for a demonstration of views. In the memorable year, even the directors on the opposite sides, the “rebellious” and the “Party” ones, stood shoulder to shoulder in order to unanimously and clearly present their stance to the authorities. This happened because the new cinematography boss Janusz Wilhelmi prepared such proposals for organisational changes in the industry which in fact sentenced the cinema to subordination in relation to the authorities, reduction of the role of Film Teams and, practically, subordination of the art to the ministry. And filmmakers could not have that – since the mid-50s, the Polish cinematography, thanks to, among others, the system of production and environmental organisation, could develop and be successful, even despite the censorship and lack of independence.
The attack of the filmmakers stunned the authorities, who had not been prepared for such solidarity and boldness. Back then, in 1977, something else happened as well. The Gdansk Lions Grand Prix was given to Krzysztof Zanussi’s Camouflage, and Andrzej Wajda, much to the critics’ and journalists’ indignation, received nothing for his Man of Marble. It was an unsuccessful attempt at conflicting the filmmakers and, following that, the participants of the event. In an act of solidarity, the former did not collect the prize, and the latter received an informal award from publicists – a brick which was given to him on a staircase of the National Technical Organisation in Gdansk by Andrzej Ochalski.
In 1978, the Golden Lions were given ex aequo again: to Passion by Stanisław Różewicz and Rough Treatment by Andrzej Wajda (was that an attempt at redressing the preceding year?). From the very beginning, the price of the organisation of the Festival was the interference of the authorities in the jury composition, and, as a result, in their verdict. Hence, the jury deliberations were traditionally an area of a fight between the “Party people” and the “environment”. The representatives of the ruling party never succeeded at pushing through a mediocre but faithful film for the Golden Lions, but as far as the other awards are concerned, fighting was fierce. An official from the National Cinematography Board described A Room with a View on the Sea by Janusz Zaorski and Top Dog by Feliks Falek as anti-Polish and anti-socialist. Those films, which later became part of the history of the Polish cinema, did not receive any award. There were more of such spectacular omissions.
The new was coming. As soon as in 1980, the Chairman of “Solidarity”, Lech Wałęsa, attended the Festival. The Golden Lions went to Kazimierz Kutz for his The Beads of One Rosary which very well matched the atmosphere of the then Poland. The reality was becoming more important than films. Some titles were taken off “the shelves”. In 1981, the Gdansk Golden Lions were given to Agnieszka Holland for Heat, and the awards included two honorary awards funded by the “Solidarity”. They went to: Andrzej Piekutowski for Chłopi ‘81 and Andrzej Wajda for Man of Iron.
The participants of those two editions remember the all-night talks, in which one could feel, on the one hand, the uncertainty of the future, and on the other hand, the great joy about the reunion, being together, and the awakened hope, until this day. Back then, the Polish Feature Film Festival was not only the feast of the Polish cinema but also an arena for the historical transformations. As Janusz Machulski recollects, “at this festival, everything was more important than films. It was the most political festival than I can remember.”
The declaration of martial law on 13th December 1981 broke off the „Solidarity” carnival. In the years 1982-1983, the festival, as well as other cultural events, was not held.
Festival – reactivation
The Polish Film Festival was reactivated in 1984. As the participants of the first editions held after the martial law recollect, it was difficult to resurrect the former enthusiastic atmosphere. Next to the official part, an alternative, secret festival was held during the meetings in the St Nicholas Church. In 1984, as many as 80 films were submitted to the contest, out of which a half was selected. Films that were different from those from the past emerged, loved by the audience who expected the cinema to be an escape from the hopeless reality: Mr Blot’s Academy by Krzysztof Gradowski or Sexmission by Juliusz Machulski. The Gdansk Lions Grand Prix was given to Jerzy Kawalerowicz for Austeria. However, the rebellious journalists and publicists decided to reward Andrzej Wajda and his Danton. One year later, the Golden Lions were given to Stanisław Różewicz for Woman in a Hat, and in 1986 to Witold Leszczyński for Axiliad. The first Festivals held after the break, then, awarded first and foremost an ambitious authorship cinema.
The XI Polish Film Festival was the last one to be organised in Gdansk. On the Polish Filmmakers Association Forum, repeated motions were filed about the abolition of censorship and the strive for showing the truth in cinematography. The Communist authorities were not going to entrust the Festival only to the environment of filmmakers. Thus, in 1987, they decided to transfer the event to Gdynia, which was then mainly a port city, the most modest link in the chain of Tricity.
The news about the change of the city shocked the environment. However, despite the authorities’ explanations, it was correctly deciphered. Obviously, it was about cutting the Festival off the Gdansk Shipyard atmosphere of freedom and solidarity. For many years, filmmakers could not come to terms with that decision, although the Musical Theatre in Gdynia provided better technical and locational conditions than the modest National Technical Organisation centre in Gdansk, with its constant issues with image and sound. The change of the venue also changed the character of the Festival, which lost its Film Discussion Club spirit.
On the other hand, however, it was in Gdynia that the first „from the shelves” films appeared, as a symbol of a falling regime. Among those was the winner, Mother of the Kings by Janusz Zaorski, who also received the Journalists Award. On the XII Festival, Robert Gliński debuted with his Sunday Games. It was one of those films prevented from being awarded by the authorities.
While Krzysztof Kieślowski was growing as the most important figure of the Polish cinema. In 1988, the Gdansk Golden Lions were given to two films: A Short Film About Love and A Short Film About Killing. One could feel the first symptoms of the upcoming transformations. It was in this year that the Round Table negotiations took place. And in June 1989, the Poles took part in the first partially free elections. The Iron Curtain fell. Poles entered a new regime: a democratic and capitalist one.
The cinema looks for its way
The political events of 1989 left their mark also on the Festival. Astonished with the situation, the organisers resigned from the competition and from awarding the Gdansk Lions, explaining vaguely that in the new reality, after the triumph of freedom, everyone deserved a prize. Only a few non-regulatory awards were given. The Award of the Polish Culture Foundation was given to Krystyna Janda for outstanding film creations in the films which reminded of the dramatic fates of the after-war generations of Poles. The Audience Award and Journalists Award were given to Ryszard Bugajski for the most famous colonel in the history – Interrogation.
At the dawn of a new decade, a new era in the social and political life, the Festival faced new tasks. Every sphere of art, including the film, faced the open free market, in which they had to find their way. And a new reality, a world not shown.
1990 opened a new era of the Polish Film Festival. As many as 33 titles were selected for the competition, to be deliberated upon by a committee and jury of over 30 people. The Gdansk Lions went to Wojciech Marczewski and his Escape from the ‘Liberty’ Cinema. It was a symbolic film created still in the time of censorship which perfectly depicted the way to freedom. Interrogation was rewarded, which only proves the importance of Bugajski’s film to the contemporary Poles. In 1991, as in the previous year, the “Oscar” method of assessing the competition films was applied. The Committee gave opinions on them and then selected nominations in particular categories to be voted upon by the jury. However, the Grand Prix was not awarded, only the Special Jury Awards were given out to Władysław Pasikowski for Kroll and Wojciech Nowak for Death of a Childmaker.
The following two years of the Festival are the editions where experiments with the jury took place. In 1992, the most famous jury in the history was appointed: Kazimierz Kutz, Maciej Dejczer, Janusz Głowacki, Zygmunt Konieczny, Adam Michnik, Jerzy Płażewski, Grażyna Szapołowska, Father Józef Tischner and Jerzy Zieliński. The Jury turned out to be more attractive than the majority of the competition titles, and open debates of the Jury members were attended by crowds.
“For the cinema of the first half of the 90s, the characteristic feature is confusion, inability to recognize sense. Out of the films produced at that time, no common image of the Polish reality emerged. Great directors made their films alongside the mainstream. It was a time of a chaos of thoughts and emotions, with a simultaneous shortage of the film form. The catalogue of the great achievements of that time includes but a few films by Krzysztof Kieslowski, Escape from the ‘Liberty’ Cinema by Wojciech Marczewski, All that Really Matters… by Robert Gliński (Golden Lions in 1992 – ed.). Back then, the cinema was unable to laugh, the right moment for that had not yet come. This difficult time for the Polish cinema resulted from the burden of great tradition in the simultaneous absence of the ability to look to the future. Attempting to copy the American patterns with the small budgets did not give the desired result either,” as Waldemar Dąbrowski, the then boss of cinematography aptly assessed this period of the history of the Polish cinema.
In 1993, the composition of the Jury for the first time included not only Polish but also foreign artists such as Lindsay Anderson. Agnieszka Holland was the Head of the Jury. The international jury composition gave an interesting verdict: the Lions were given ex aequo to the only film understood by the foreigners (Sequence of Feelings by Radosław Piwowarski) and the film which, as Agnieszka Holland recollects, was not understood by them but was appreciated for its greatness (Case Pekosinski by Grzegorz Królikiewicz).
In 1994, the design of the Festival Grand Prix changed: it now were two lions turned towards each other, looking at opposite directions, holding the coats of arms of Gdynia. Obviously, it was based on the designs from the previous years but slightly changed and modernised. That year, the Golden Lions went to Kazimierz Kutz for a modest, television comedy The Convert which in a simple manner treats of the paradoxes of the Polish history. On the jubilee, XX Polish Feature Film Festival, Juliusz Machulski was awarded for Girl Guide. As the very Head of Jury, Janusz Majewski described it, “in the background of the competition films, this one stood out with its wit, intelligence, precision, quality of performance and, as for those times, it was a surprising, original comedy proposal.” The comedy, a non-frequent winner in the competition, also received the Golden Claquer. While in 1996, as in 1991 and 1976, the Grand Prix was not awarded. Instead, the Jury decided on three Special Awards: to Krzysztof Zanussi for At Full Gallop, to Krzysztof Krauze for Street Games and to Filip Bajon for Poznan ‘56. The Jury justified their decision with the lack of a film which would look boldly into the future rather than the past.
The verdicts of the following Festivals were not that controversial. In 1997, Jerzy Stuhr triumphed in Gdynia with his Love Stories which were successful both in the country and abroad. In 1998, the Golden Lions went to History of Cinema in Popielawy, and in 2000, to Krzysztof Zanussi for the ambiguous film story Life As a Fatal Sexually Transmitted Disease. In 1999, the great winner of PFF was The Debt by Krzysztof Krauze, which competed with With Fire and Sword by Jerzy Hoffman. Many took for granted the success of the latter, however, the Jury headed by Tadeusz Chmielewski, fully convinced, chose the former. The award for an actor in a main role made Andrzej Chyra a star in one evening. As Jacek Bromski noted, “until then, no Jury had had the courage to award even the greatest acting creation if the role was a bad figure.” Since then, Chyra received an acting award twice more: for The Collector and In the Name of…. The 90s were also the time of interesting directing debuts and great personalities of the Polish cinema, such as: Jerzy Stuhr, Dorota Kędzierzawska, Mariusz Treliński or Jan Jakub Kolski.
To get through the crisis
The new millennium brought new challenges and a new trend – the off cinema. This was, on the one hand, the result of the greater availability of the shooting equipment, but on the other hand, a side effect of the deepening economic crisis of the Polish cinematography. The filmmakers still could not wait for new legislation which would regulate the financing of film production. The beginning of the new century is a time of the biggest economic crisis of the domestic film. The off film often became the only chance to debut even for professional directors. During this period, the competition was forced to be filled with not only off films but also purely television productions made in Betacam systems, such as the cycle Polish holidays.
In 2001, the Golden Lions for Hi, Tereska went to Robert Gliński who also used the off methods, making a black and white, raw film with juvenile non-professional actors. The film also received the Golden Claqueur thanks to, inter alia, the great role of Zbigniew Zamachowski. This festival took place in the shadow of tragic events. On 11thSeptember, there was an attack on the World Trade Center. Instead of the cinema screen, the guests more often watched TVN24 coverage in the foyer and in hotel rooms. However, despite the claims of some participants, the Festival was not broke off.
In 2002, the first independent cinema competition took place. It involved 14 titles and the winner was Kobieta z papugą na ramieniu by Ryszard Maciej Nyczka. The film was awarded by a separate jury headed by Jacek Borcuch. Each edition brought new names, new directing and acting talents, for example, Alicja Bachleda-Curuś, Agnieszka Grochowska, Wojciech Smarzowski, Marek Lechki, Anna Jadowska, or Matwiejczyk brothers. The beginning of the century was undoubtedly the time of debutants. For two years in a row, they even received the Golden Lions – in 2003, Dariusz Gajewski for Warsaw and in 2004, Magdalena Piekorz for The Welts. In 2002, Marek Koterski triumphed with Day of the Wacko, a film to be considered as the film of the quarter of the century by the audience of the Trojka radio station in a few years.
Here came 2005, accompanied by the Act on cinematography passed in June. The Polish cinema undeniably enter a new age. The creation of a financing system for film production and the establishment of the Polish Film Institute revolutionised the quality and social receipt of the home cinema. The audience chose Polish productions increasingly often; the manner of writing about the Polish cinematography and its social image also changed. The jubilee XXX Polish Feature Film Festival in 2005 was a great feast where the Act legislators and all those who contributed to its passing met: the Minister of Culture Waldemar Dąbrowski, the Deputy Minister (and, for the next 10 years, the Director of the Polish Film Institute) Agnieszka Odorowicz, the Head of the Polish Filmmakers Association Jacek Bromski, the Head of the National Chamber of Audiovisual Producers Maciej Strzembosz, members of the Parliament: Piotr Gadziniowski, Jerzy Wenderlich, creators, activists, journalists. The Golden Lions went to Top Dog by Feliks Falek.
A good decade
The subsequent editions of the Festival documented the dynamic development of cinematography. The films awarded in Gdynia reached the highest trophies in the film world, including the Academy Award nominations and awards at top class festivals: Essential Killing by Jerzy Skolimowski (2011), In Darkness by Agnieszka Holland (2012), Ida by Paweł Pawlikowski (2013), Body by Małgorzata Szumowska (2015). Although controversies appear every year, rarely do they relate to the winner of the Golden Lions. Typically, authorship films are the winners. In 2006, the Lions went to the drama Saviour Square by the Krauze marriage, in 2007 to Tricks by Andrzej Jakimowski, and in 2009 to an ambitious debut: The Reverse by Borys Lankosz. But there are also Lions for genre films, as in 2008 for Little Moscow by Waldemar Krzystek, in 2014 for Gods by Łukasz Palkowski, and in 2010 for the historical melodrama Little Rose by Jan Kidawa-Błoński.
The last decade was a period of changes in the formula, the search for new organizational solutions as well as more frequent rotation on the position of the Artistic Director. The Independent Cinema Competition, established in 2002, was held until 2010. It soon turned out that it is impossible to compare the modest off-screen and sophisticated etudes from Lodz and Katowice. So since 2006, there is held an overview (and since 2007, a contest) of etudes and diploma films – the Young Cinema Competition. In the recent years, the concept of the independent film went through further transformations. More and more often fully professional films are made outside the official system, such asLa Isla by Katarzyna Klimkiewicz or From Bed Thou Arose by Bartosz Konopka. Hence, in 2015, the Artistic Director Michał Oleszczyk (appointed one year earlier) decided to establish the Festival Short Film Competition presenting Polish short features with the exception of etudes and diploma films from film schools. These are shown in the Young Cinema Competition.
In 2014, the Director Michał Oleszczyk introduced a new section for experimental, inter-genre films – Visions Apart. Since 2015, this section is one of the competitions. The first prizewinner was Mariusz Grzegorzek, in recognition of his Śpiewający obrusik.
Experiments appeared also in the name of the event. In 2012, it was Gdynia Film Festival, in 2013 – Gdynia Festiwal Filmowy, and since 2014 to 2016 – Festiwal Filmowy w Gdyni. Michał Chaciński, the Artistic Director of the Festival in the years 2011-2013, selected the films by himself. At the moment, the Selection Board choose the titles for the Main Competition (the most sensitive part of the Festival) and the Organising Committee approves them.
The Festival grows and becomes increasingly open to the public. This is facilitated by the consistent policy of the authorities of Gdynia who treat the festival as the best of its brand, investing in the development of the event and in the cultural infrastructure. The longtime Artistic Director of the PFFF, Maciej Karpiński, began the process of opening the event for the inhabitants of the city and tourists in the 90s, which was successfully continued by his successor, Mirosław Bork, and the Director of the Polish Feature Film Festival, Leszek Kopeć. At the beginning of the twenty-first century the Festival, apart from the Music Theatre, established its home also at the Gemini Centre – currently, the Gdynia Waterfront Centre. The screening rooms of Multikino are filled with crowds of spectators, visitors and artists for a whole week. Renovated in 2013, the Musical Theatre acts as the representative Palace of the Festival. In 2015, the film Gdynia found its haven: the Gdynia Film Centre was initiated, which houses a three-inch studio cinema and the Gdynia Film School, where the Pomeranian Film Workshops are held. As one of the Festival locations, the Centre debuted in 2015, making an instant hit. In this way, the Festival space constantly expands, and the number of viewers steadily grows. Currently, in several sections of the Festival, nearly 50 thousand viewers participate, out of which 9-10 thousand are the youngest viewers, the audience of Gdynia for Children, the section co-organised with the PFA.
Is it impossible to mention the titles of all the good films which in the recent years participated in the competition sections. There were years so abundant in outstanding titles (e.g. 2012 or 2013) that even the great titles were left without awards or with prizes that were purely symbolic. Gdynia Film Festival encompasses forty years of an unusual history full of changes, surprises, unexpected verdicts, but also great successes, memorable conversations and meetings. There are beautiful moments at the Festival, like during the jubilee celebrations; there are difficult moments. In 2015, on the last day of the jubilee 40th edition of the Festival, visitors, spectators and filmmakers had to deal with the unexpected passing away of Marcin Wrona, the maker of, among others, The Christening and Demon.
On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Festival, in 2015, a competition for the Diamond Lions was announced, concerning the most beloved films awarded during the entire history of the event. Viewers proved to be faithful above all to the classics. The outright winner was Nights and Days by Jerzy Antczak, next to it, nominations were given to: Deluge by Jerzy Hoffman and The Promised Land by Andrzej Wajda. The star of Nights and Days, Jadwiga Barańska was selected as the best actress, and the fourfold (!) winner, Janusz Gajos, as the best actor (Gajos received the award for Millionaire, Escape from Liberty’ Cinema, Interrogation and eventually, in 2015, for Body). Nominations were also given to Krystyna Janda (Interrogation), Danuta Szaflarska (Time to Die), Tomasz Kot (Gods) and Jerzy Bińczycki (Nights and Days). While the Internet users and viewers liked the most the music of The Promised Land by Wojciech Kilar, and nominations were also given to the compositions of Henryk Kuźniak (Va Bank II) and Michał Lorenc (Bastard, Pigs).
Talented young people next to masters, actors next to directors, the audience next to the filmmakers: the Festival in Gdynia is a meeting place. As pointed out by Karolina Gruszka: “During those several days directors, actors, cinematographers, producers, creators, critics and cinema lovers meet. And they have a wonderful opportunity to talk to each other, to stay together, to name something for each other, to feel something, to inspire with something.” The Festival has always united the filmmakers environment, at the same time initiating a conversation with the audience… It was so in the Polish People’s Republic times, at the time of the censorship, after 1989, and in the next millennium. It is an annual celebration of the Polish cinema, and at the same time a reunion of the great film family and one of the most effective forms of the promotion of the Polish cinema.
We invite you to Gdynia, we invite you to the Festival!
- A Film with a View to the Sea. 40 years of the Gdańsk – Gdynia Film Festival, ed. Anna Wróblewska, pub. Stowarzyszenie Filmowców Polskich, Warsaw 2015, Electronic version: http://www.sfp.pl/filmzwidokiemnamorze
- And the ship goes on. 30 years of PFFF Gdańsk-Gdynia, pub. Fundacja Kino, Warsaw 2005
Bachelor’s Thesis by Anna Górka The organisation of a big cultural event on the example of Gdynia Film Festival, Humanities Faculty, UKSW, 2016